Seed germination may be defined as the fundamental process by which different plant species grow from a single seed into a plant. This process influences both crop yield and quality. Seed germination required the water and oxygen, for a seed to germinate into a seedling and to a plant. It also requires the moderate temperature of around 25-30°C. Light or darkness acts as an environmental trigger. Many seeds refuse to germinate until sunlight falls on them.

Seed germination is crucial stage in plant development and can be considered as a determinant for plant productivity. Physiological and biochemical changes followed by morphological changes during germination are strongly related to seedling survival rate and vegetative growth which consequently affect yield and quality.

During the beginning stage of the germination, the seeds take up water rapidly and this results in swelling and softening of the seed coat at an optimum temperature. By rupturing of the seed coats help to emerge the radicle and the plumule to form a primary root. This stage is referred to as an Imbibition.

  • After the emerging of the radicle and the plumule, the seed activates its internal physiology and starts to respire and produce proteins and metabolize the stored of food. This is a lag phase of the seed germination.
  • This is a final stage of seed germination. In this stage, the cell of the seeds are elongated and divided, which brings out the root and radicle out of the seed and cotyledons are expanded which, are the true leaves of the new plant.

By – Assistant Professor – Ms. Anita Trivedi  
Department of Agriculture
Magazine (YouthRainBow)- Uttaranchal (P.G.) College Of Bio-Medical Sciences & Hospital
Uttaranchal (P.G.) College Of Bio-Medical Sciences & Hospital
Uttaranchal College of Education
College Of Nursing UCBMSH

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